Usual folds and minimal stains on edges. Regarding the literary and artistic life of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His real name is Henry Durand, he is also known under the pen names of Henry Davray. In the early 20th century, he was a prominent popularizer of English literature by translating and introducing the works of Oscar Wilde, Rudyard Kipling, Frank Harris, H. Wells, Joseph Conrad, and George Meredith.He created several journals, the most famous of which is the Anglo-French Review. After World War I, his efforts to promote the spread of English prose made him the most famous Frenchman in British literary circles, where he settled in 1940 after being made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by King George VI. Davray was responsible for the "Lettres anglaises" section of the Mercure de France from 1896. The first translator of De Profundis and The Ballad of Reading Gaol by Oscar Wilde in 1898, he also translated a large part of H.
's works into French from 1898 to 1912 (including the famous The War of the Worlds). Literary critic, journalist, translator, writer. Henry Durand-Davray, born on August 14, 1873 in Gennevilliers, and died on January 21, 1944 in London, was a French translator and literary critic. A specialist in English literature at the prestigious Parisian journal, Mercure de France, he translated the works of H.
Wells, Rudyard Kipling, Oscar Wilde, and Yeats into French. During World War I, he was a war correspondent and official delegate of the French government. He was the brother-in-law of the painter Georges Dola. Born to a Vosges father, Jean-Lucien-Henry Durand, a gardener, and an Occitan mother, a chambermaid and then a cook, he developed a deep aversion to Germany and an attraction to England where he spent most of his vacations.
He studied English at the Sorbonne, but failed to obtain a diploma due to his prolonged absences. Nevertheless, he acquired a vast culture that allowed him to integrate and evolve in artistic, political, and literary circles in both London and Paris. He became acquainted with many writers, especially those belonging to H. Wells' circle: Arnold Bennett and Joseph Conrad. In 1917, he was one of the founders of the Anglo-French Society whose aim was to promote the Entente cordiale; his friends affectionately nicknamed him "the tunnel under the English Channel.
" When Oscar Wilde, after being released from prison in 1897, stayed in Naples for a while, Henry-D. Davray met him, having obtained his address, Villa Giudice at Pausilippe, thanks to Ernest Dowson, a close friend of the writer. The two men met again by chance when, towards the end of his life, Oscar Wilde found himself in need. Having had to cancel a meeting to receive him, Wilde asked Davray for money and offered him a dedicated copy of John Webster's The Duchess of Malfi in exchange.
Stuart Merrill, a symbolist and anarchist poet of American nationality, spent his childhood in Paris, where his father belonged to the US embassy. At the Condorcet high school, he was classmates with some of the future symbolists, including René Ghil, André Fontainas, and Éphraïm Mikhaël, among others. He was attracted to the French language and acquired a very rich poetic culture. There, he became the spokesperson for French poetry, particularly Parnassianism, which strongly influenced him.
At the same time, he studied the prosody of the English language. He published his first collection of poems, Les Gammes (1887), at a time when the circle around Mallarmé was forming. The reference to music is evident and, like most other symbolists, he sought to use words as notes on a staff, as elementary sounds that would organize into a song. While others, such as Ghil, found new techniques, such as verbal instrumentation, to achieve this musicality, Stuart Merrill borrowed the technique of alliteration from Anglo-Saxon poetry; he applied it systematically and quickly showed the limits of such a poetics. Fastes (1891) and Petits Poèmes d'automne (1895) still bear the mark of this prosodic work; however, Stuart Merrill gradually freed himself from any influence: Les Quatre Saisons (1900) are already a much more personal and original evocation.Permanently settled in France since 1890, Merrill wrote numerous articles on the symbolists on both sides of the Atlantic and contributed to their appreciation by the public. But as a great admirer of the American poet Walt Whitman, he moved towards a much more didactic poetry. Une voix dans la foule (1909) illustrates his love for humanity and his democratic ideal. Language serves his conviction and he gains a strength that is foreign to his early verses. The manifesto of symbolism, published by Jean Moréas on September 18, 1886, appeared while Stuart Merrill was staying in the United States, which he had returned to after the death of his father.
It was from there that he corresponded with his French friends and sent his first poems for publication. "Passionate about social justice, involved in the Marxist movement, he was seen in the streets of New York selling leaflets denouncing the high society "four hundred"... Upon his permanent return to France, at the height of symbolism, he published Les Fastes in 1891 and Les Petits Poèmes d'automne in 1895, opened a salon frequented by the symbolists at his home on Quai de Bourbon in Paris, supported Oscar Wilde during his trial, and became enthusiastic about the Armenian cause and the defense of Captain Dreyfus. As a collaborator of the magazines La Plume and L'Ermitage, he linked his poetic writing to a political commitment under the sign of anarchism."What makes the strength of the symbolist theory is precisely its anarchy. It only asks the poet to be significant, that is, individual, and to reveal himself, thought and emotion, through images as general as possible. Yes, symbolism is anarchy in literature; instead of curling up between two dates, like M. Zola, or burying oneself alive in a box of mummies, like M.
Leconte de Lisle, it wanders with its glorious imagination through lands and ages, and cares little whether the riches it gathers come from Golconda or Ophir." L'Ermitage, August 1893, p. From then on, his attachment to liberated verse and free verse, freed from the constraints of metrics, is understandable.However, beyond the structure, it is inspiration that is at the heart of his poetic approach: "Only the poet's talent justifies or condemns his metrics.