Autograph letter - French politician xixe/xxe. President of the French Republic. 1 letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter with a letter. From the senate, signed by.
I share your patriotic sadness, and am no less bitter than you. When I think of the long series of concessions that we have made to Germany since the victory; but let me tell you that in my opinion, our political regime. Is quite alien to these unfortunate results; a king would have no more authority. Only a president of the republic in the peace negotiations.The only head of state who was able to intervene personally was Mr. Wilson, because he was at the same time head of government; neither the king of angleterre, nor the king of italia, nor the king of the Belgians sat at the conference and, in the constitutional monarchies as well as in the parliamentary republics, the executive power actually belongs to the ministers; I hope that it will be possible, we firmly have the will, to remedy the measures that worry you; it is after all under the republic that the france was victorious and all the good citizens can group together in the republic, so that it is not frustrated with the fruits of victory... One of the most important politicians of the Third Republic! He served as President of the Republic throughout the war of 14-18. President of the French Republic. February 18, 1913 - February 18, 1920. Has held many ministerial posts. On several occasions he was. President of the French Council of Ministers, Minister of Finance. Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister of Public Education for Fine Arts and Worship. January 21, 1920 - October 15, 1934.
(14 years, 8 months and 24 days). Holder of the chair 34 of the French Academy. 18 March 1909 - 15 October 1934.
(25 years, 6 months and 27 days). Raymond poincaré (born 20 August 1860 in bar-le-duc (meuse) and died 15 October 1934 in Paris).Is a French lawyer and statesman. He is the President of the French Republic. Minister on several occasions, President of the Council of Ministers and then President of the Republic from 1913 to 1920, a poincaré raymond was one of the greatest political figures of the Third Republic. He was also, as president of the republic, one of the central figures of the First World War, a conflict during which he called Georges Clemenceau to the presidency of the council in 1917. After his presidential term, he was again president of the council from 1922 to 1924 and from 1926 to 1929. Children, studies, private and family life. Raymond nicolas Landry poincaré was born to an affluent bar-le-duc family on August 20, 1860.
Raymond poincaré spent his childhood in the bourgeois house of the grand-parents ficatier, rue du doctor nève, at bar-le-duc; the latter had made fortune in neuilly-sur-seine. He is also the great-grandson of Jean Landry Gillon, MP during the reign of Louis-philippe.
He is also the nephew of Amal Poincaré, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Nancy, the older brother of Lucian Poincaré, Director of Secondary Education at the Ministry of Public Education and Fine Arts, and the first cousin of the mathematician and scientist Henri Poincaré. Like many of his generation, he was marked by the defeat of 1870. The parental home is requisitioned by the Prussian occupant. Following this episode, in 1871, he gave his dog the name bismarck, with reference to the Imperial Chancellor of Germany. After studying at nancy, he finished his schooling at the lycée louis-le-grand à betis before continuing his studies in law at the law school of betting.Graduated in law and letters, he became a trainee lawyer and finished major of the bar conference. He also began a journalistic career in the Republican press. He becomes secretary to me Henry of the Buit, famous business lawyer. In 1883 he gave a speech. At the opening of the conference of lawyers in which he praised the republican jules dufaure, former batonier and former president of the council who had died two years earlier. "If it is to be hoped that the praise of an illustrious death will awaken in us the desire to imitate it, the simple account of the life of dufaure will, I believe, contain for our generation a precious example of work, independence and dignity. Leverage dufaure at the opening of the 1883 Bar Association, Paris Bar. Trained in politics by develle jules of which he was, for eighteen months, director of cabinet at the Ministry of Agriculture in 1886, then elected general councillor of the canton of pierrefitte in the meuse, poincaré formed a reputation as a moderate republican and reconciling from his first term as deputy for the meuse in 1887. This does not prevent this son of a polytechnician, reluctantly entered the political scene. To impose itself on it quickly. In 1895 he opened his firm, which quickly obtained a great success and had a very prestigious clientele for press affairs - he is a lawyer of the Parisian press union - literary affairs - he is in particular the lawyer of the writer jules verne - and the law of companies - he is among his clients the largest industrial and financial companies of the moment. He entered politics in 1887, being elected deputy in the department of the Meuse. He is then the Benjamin of the Chamber. In 1892 he was rapporteur of the Finance Committee at the time of the Panama scandal and was re-elected the following year. He is a supporter of secularism but far from radical anticlericalism. He advocates a "neutral school", whose vocation would be to produce true patriots.
Poincaré then became one of the leaders for the moderates, who displayed the "progressive" label that replaced the old name of "opportunism" used by gambetta and jules ferry. These "progressive republicans" move from the left center to the right center. Depending on the phenomenon of sinistrism.During the dreyfus case, he took a cautious attitude. He is first of all one of those who wish to stifle a scandal that they consider to be contrary to reason of state. He eventually joined the dreyfusard camp, more out of legalism (the attitude of sticking strictly to the letter of the law) than out of conviction. Although republican and secular - a sure sign, in the good times, of membership to the left - poincaré nevertheless remains cautious towards the left, and remains very moderate.
In June 1899, the president of the republic, Emile Loubet, urged him as president of the council. But he can't agree on the different republican tendencies to compose a government, while clemenceau declared. "The gift of poincare is not to be disdained: it is intelligence.
Next to someone who would provide character." So poincaré advised the loubet to call rather waldeck-rousseau6, which formed a republican defense firm. Nevertheless, poincaré opposed it and even more, after the victory of the bloc of the lefts in the election of 1902, against the anticlerical policy of emile combes.
As a member of the liberal democratic alliance (centre-right), however, he generally supported the Combist cabinet. Later, it was at the senate that poincaré decided to introduce himself.
He was elected senator in the Meuse in 1903. In the upper chamber, although everyone recognizes him a vast classical culture, his speeches are considered monotonous served by a loud voice perched. He left the senate in 1913, when he was elected to the elysée.
Then he returned to office in 1920 until 1934, when he died. In 1906, clemenceau, who nevertheless considered a bit too soft - it was he who would have invented. The expression "poincarism" in his weekly the block of March 15, 1902 - nevertheless proposes to him to enter his government. Poincaré, perhaps out of animosity, refuses to do so.
Much more because of its proximity to the literary community than because of its literary reputation. He was elected to the French Academy in 1909, and until then he had published only three modest studies. He is also a teacher at Hei-hep schools. In January 1912, he was appointed president of the council and formed a government of moderate republicans with briand to justice; theophile delcassed to the navy; jules pams to agriculture; albert lebrun to the colonies and bourgeois leon to work and social security. He granted himself the portfolio of foreign affairs and gave himself as diplomatic line the rapprochement with angleterre, the consolidation of the alliance with the empire of the Tsar and the firmness with Germany.
The Parisian press then made him a flattering reputation for determination. From August 6 to 12, 1912, he was on an official visit to Russia as part of the Franco-Russian alliance. As the presidential term of armand lies comes to an end, poincaré presents himself as. Candidate in the presidential election of 1913. The president of the council is running against the president of the chamber, paul deschanel, and the president of the senate, antonin dubost.Jules Pams, the Minister of Agriculture, a person considered to be erased and whose candidacy is essentially aimed at countering poincaré. According to the Republican tradition, a preparatory election is held to choose the candidate of the "republican camp"; the "moderate" (right-wing Republicans) on the one hand, and the socialists on the other, however, refuse to participate. In the third round, Pams won with 323 votes against 309 for poincaré, ranked to the left at the time (dreyfusard, layman, he had married civilly, then religiously in 1922). Republican discipline would have wanted him to withdraw from these primaries, and that is what a delegation led by combes and clemenceau is asking him to do. But poincaré refused, knowing that in the official election he would be supported by the Republican right. He therefore ran for election on 17 January 1913 in the second round, with 482 votes against 296 in Pams and 69 for the valiant socialist Edward. Clemenceau will retain a tenacious resentment against poincaré for failing to respect the republican discipline, which he himself will respect in the presidential election of 1920. His mandate as Head of State will obviously be marked by the First World War. During which he is the craftsman of the sacred political and social union, alongside rene viviani. Aristide briand and then clemenceau georges. He pushed russia to firmness on his official trip from July 13 to 23, 1914 in Russia, in order to. Strengthen alliances two weeks after the sarajevo attack. With briand and clemenceau, and against jaures. And the sfio, poincaré raymond supports the three-year law, which extends military service to three years.
In exchange, he granted to the parliament hostile to the war a progressive income tax whose debate opened in the Senate on 3 July 1914, a few days after the sarajevo attack. It is, however, a measure that is very unappreciated even in its own party.
He could thus be nicknamed "poincaré la guerre", notably by Edward Herriot. Raymond poincaré reportedly stated that he wanted to preserve peace by ordering a distance of 10 km from the Franco-German border of the cover troops in July 1914. However, this order will be described as "purely diplomatic" and "for English public opinion", and will be officially lifted on August 2, 1914, 24 hours before the German declaration of war. Recent historiography has shown that poincaré bears a share of real responsibility in. The death of the "European concert" as it had existed in the 19th century.On 4 August, his message was sent to the rooms by rene viviani. The france "will be heroically defended by all his sons, of whom nothing will break before the enemy, the sacred union. And who are today fraternally assembled in the same indignation against the aggressor, and in the same patriotic faith." He took part in the ceremony of transferring the ash of lisle redfish to the invalids. On 14 July 1915, in which he gave a famous speech in which he explained his vision. The outbreak of the First World War. He does not hesitate, sometimes at the risk of his life, to come to the front (mainly in the meuse and in the sum) in order to judge the morale of the displaced troops and populations. On several occasions he visited the part of the alsace which had returned to France on 7 August 1914: at the pass of the schlucht, at thann, masevaux, saint-amarin. And dannemarie between 11 February 1915 and 10 April 1916. Nevertheless, the population was bitter in the face of the hundreds of thousands of deaths: in 1917, a photographer of the newspaper Humanity, during a visit to a military cemetery alongside the ambassador of the United States, surprised a rictus and published a photograph of poincaré, nicknamed him. "Poincaré, the war, the man who laughs in the cemeteries. At the end of 1917, he named the clemenceau radical-socialist, whom he did not like but admired the firmness of character, as chairman of the council. His role then becomes more discreet, and he even complains, in his writings, of being set aside. However, it retains some influence: according to the historian michel winock, a certain form of cohabitation takes place between the two men. In the last weeks of the war, it is partisan with tin to pursue the Germans to their home while clemenceau who believes that the war has been sufficiently deadly wants to obtain an armistice as soon as possible.
He was later literally excluded by clemenceau. Negotiations of the Treaty of Versalts. His presidency is well known to us in particular by his ten-volume memoirs at the service of the france which he published between 1926 and 1934. One discovers a head of state disillusioned by the limitations of his office. Unlike his predecessors, he tried to overcome the role of representation and moral magisterium, which was then that of the President of the Republic, by communicating his personal opinion and acting through intermediaries.
However, it must remain within the bounds to which the dominant interpretation of the Constitution limits it. As early as 1920, when his term of office had not been completed, he was elected Senator of the Meuse, and then became Chairman of the Senate's Committee on Foreign Affairs. Aristide briand having resigned from the presidency of the council following criticism of his positions on foreign policy at the cane conference, poincaré agreed to become president again in January 1922. At the request of the President of the Republic, Alexander Millerand. He's not appreciated by the left.On January 26, 1922, in a speech in Charenton, Paul valiant-couturier the attack: "he is the man of militarism and petty-bourgeoisie. He is the defender of the petty-bourgeois with Russian values. He is above all the one who, through his secret diplomacy. Tomorrow a new war will be unleashed on the country. In the face of Germany, which refuses to pay for war reparations, the poincaré raymond resorts to force, making the ruhr occupy. But his policy of budgetary rigour made him unpopular and, in 1924, after the victory of the left cartel, he had to submit his resignation, as did President Millerand.
He was reminded of the magnitude of the financial crisis at the head of the government in 1926. He then formed a cabinet of national union, keeping briand in foreign affairs, and returning to a policy of financial austerity; the germinal franc was replaced by the poincaré franc of a value five times less, devaluation that merely endorsed the real exchange. However, he managed to present a balanced budget, which would not happen until 1965.
Sick and tired, he resigned in 1929. In June 1931, he was elected a barrister of the Paris Bar Association. But he resigned the following October.Senator, he died on October 15, 1934, at his home, located 26 rue marbeau, in the 16th arrondissement. Due to the precarious financial situation of the couple, the parliament had to vote a pension to his widow. His national funeral took place in Paris on 20 October, in the presence of President Albert Lebrun, Gaston Doumergue, members of the government and foreign missions including nicolas de Rumania. He was buried on 21 October in nubecourt, in his native department of the Meuse, after a funeral in the village church of Saint-Martin celebrated by the Bishop of Verdun. 1 sheet of white paper, folded in its center forming 4pp. [Georgian origin or louis boulay]. This item is in the category "collections\letters, old papers\autographs\historical persons". The seller is "amideslivres" and is located in this country: fr. This item can be shipped to the following country: whole world.